Caerphilly Castle is one of the largest and most impressive surviving fortresses from medieval Europe and is in thirty acre grounds in the centre of Caerphilly. Construction of this concentric Norman castle began in 1268 and had to stand against considerable Welsh attack. It is surrounded by water and a curtain wall with an inner ward with round corner towers and has a twin towered gateway. The outer ward has an impressive late thirteenth gatehouse. Considerable restoration was undertaken by the Bhute family in the nineteenth century. The site is in Caerphilly, which is north of Cardiff.