Celtic Myth & legend

Mannin - The Celtic Land of Myths and Legends

Meayll Circle

The Isle of Man (Mannin) abounds with myths, legends and mystical creatures. The environment provides a perfect setting with its mists, dark hills, rugged coastline, wooded valleys and tumbling streams. In amongst it all are the ancient burial chambers of pre-history where it was supposed that many creatures of the 'Otherworld'  either dwelt or used as a portal to enter their magical kingdom. Most significant amongst the Gaelic pantheon of Manx, Irish and Scottish mythology are the Tuatha Dé Danann. They are Celtic pre-Christian gods with supernatural ability and were of great importance to Gaelic people.

Their association with ancient Neolithic and Bronze Age burial mounds and cairns is probably linked to the importance these sites had for the people of pre-history. They were places of communal interment for the ancestors of the Celts of northwest Europe who are descended from the native Neolithic peoples of these lands. Their story was passed on for many centuries in oral tradition. Many of these legends were recorded in a collection of poems and texts, some dating from the third century AD, and compiled in the eleventh century by Christian scholars in Ireland in such works as the Leabhar Gabhála Éireann known in English as The Book of Invasions.

Celtic Myths and Legends by Peter Berresford Ellis

Celtic symbol“Celtic Myths and Legends”, by Peter Berresford Ellis, is an entertaining 600 pages of 37 mythic tales drawn from the legends and folklore of the six Celtic nations.  This work benefits immensely from the story telling prowess of the author who is also author of the “Sister Fidelma” historical mysteries under his pseudonym of Peter Tremayne.

In addition to the tales based on folkloric tradition, the author gives the reader a grounding in the Mythology of the Celtic peoples and an overview of the Celtic languages in the 22 page introduction.  An introduction which deftly places into context the ancient roots of Celtic mythology and in doing so supports the premise that certain aspects of Celtic Myth are windows to the very beginnings of Indo-European culture.  Ellis continues with a concise summary of the linguistic development and divergence of the mother tongue into the two Celtic language groups of Brythonic (Welsh, Breton and Cornish) versus that of the Goidelic (Irish, Scottish and Manx).

Linguists argue that the form of Celtic we term Goidelic is the more archaic branch of Celtic.  It is suggested that around the 7th century BC, the Celtic languages subdivided, when the form which we call Brythonic emerged. From a Goidelic parent, Brythonic modified and evolved in several ways.

Changelings, Fairies, Deities, and Saints: The Integration of Irish Christianity and Fairy Tale Belief

Fairy tales, folklore, and legends play a notable role in the foundation and development of nearly every culture and society. These stories serve as entertainment, education, and a means of socialization, and can often be linked to other cultural phenomena such as religion and spirituality. The fairy tales of Ireland are specifically rooted in spiritual beliefs and superstitions, and while modern religions have widely replaced these early belief systems, Gaelic and Celtic folklore has shaped the culture of Ireland in significant and lasting ways. Just as the Grimm brothers’ tales were used as entertainment as well as educational and moral lessons for children, Irish fairy tales were aimed at instructing and engaging all ages. According to Joseph Jacobs in his book Celtic Fairy Tales, "nowhere else is there so large and consistent a body of oral tradition about the national and mythical heroes as amongst the Gaels" (Jacobs, xx). The effect of the fairy faith’s absorption of  modern Christianity created a canon of tales that intertwines spiritual beliefs, lessons of morality, and entertainment value to create a lively and unique set of fables and a lasting impact on the culture of Ireland.

Myfanwy of Dinas Bran - A Sad Welsh Tale of Unrequited Love

The remains of Castell Dinas Bran stand above the Welsh town of Llangollen. The brooding site is the backdrop for the sad love story of Myfanwy. She is a princess and renowned for her beauty throughout Powys in Wales. Myfanwy is proud of her looks and wants her many suitors to proclaim her beauty in song and verse. Many come to court her but are not able to compose songs that truly reflect her looks. She rejects them all.

However, in the valley beneath the castle lives a poor bard Hywel ap Einion. Taking his courage in his hands the young bard goes to the castle and sings and plays for Myfanwy. Whilst he performs his song to her she is captivated and will look at no other. Hywel ap Einion believes his love for her to be reciprocated because of this.

Bunworth’s Banshee

Bunworth's Banshee

The story of the Reverend Charles Bunworth and the Banshee took place in Buttevant, County Cork, Ireland in the eighteenth century. The Reverend was a much respected man in the area and admired as an accomplished harpist. When he became ill local people became concerned. This was a concern that was heightened, not by the immediate prognosis of his illness, which was not thought to be terminal, but the strange events that took place in the area prior to his demise.

A servant of the household reported to the concerned family of Reverend Bunworth that he had heard the wailing of a banshee. He described how the woman had wailed and moaned and clapped her hands in despair, repeating the Reverend’s name. Local people knew that this could only mean one thing. For the banshee was known to all as the lone female figure whose cries of despair herald an impending death.

The Afanc - Mythical Welsh lake monster

Lady Charlotte Guest

The Afanc is a mythical Welsh lake monster. It is said to live in a number of different lakes in Wales such as llyn Llion, Llyn Barfog and Llyn-y-Afanc which bares its name. The creature also described variously as resembling a beaver, a dwarf and also a crocodile. It features in the tale of Peredur son of Efrawg (where it is known as the Addanc) contained within a collection of prose drawn from Celtic pre-Christian mythology and medieval Welsh manuscripts known as The Mabinogion. The Mabinogion is taken from The White Book of Rhydderch (Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch) written in the mid-fourteenth century and in The Red Book of Hergest (Llyfr Coch Hergest) written later in the same century. Both contain a collection of the earliest Welsh prose texts. The stories draw from earlier pre-Christian Celtic mythology and contain the first examples of Arthurian tales.

Culhwch and Olwen (Welsh: Culhwch ac Olwen)

The story of Culhwch and Olwen is a remarkable Welsh tale told in two manuscripts. Partially in The White Book of Rhydderch (Welsh: Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch) written in the mid-fourteenth century and in total in The Red Book of Hergest (Welsh: Llyfr Coch Hergest) written later in the same century. Both contain a collection of the earliest Welsh prose texts. The story is included in a group of tales that was later known under the title The Mabinogion. Culhwch is connected with King Arthur who features in the tale and having been formulated prior to the 11th century is perhaps the earliest Arthurian tale. The stories draw from earlier pre-Christian Celtic mythology.

The White Book of Rhydderch is now located in the National Library of Wales and has been split into two volumes. One containing Christian scripts in Welsh translated from Latin and the other a collection of pre-Christian mythology. The Red Book of Hergest gets its name from its association with Hergest Court, where the Vaughan family had it in their possession, and the colour of its binding in leather. Written on vellum it is noted as an extremely important medieval Welsh manuscript and contains a collection of welsh poetry and prose. It is now located in Jesus College Oxford. The book gives an account of the story of Culhwch and Olwen a synopsis of which follows. 

Cormoran the Cornish Giant and Jack the Giant Killer

Celtic giantThe Celtic nation of Cornwall has many myths and legends involving giants. One such giant was Cormoran.  His legendary home was St Michaels Mount and from this base he launched many raids on the terrified locals, stealing their livestock. The desperate people offered a reward to anyone who could rid them of the giant and allow them to live in peace. Not fully expecting anyone to be brave enough to rise to this challenge they were surprised when a young boy called Jack stepped forward.

Tom Bawcock - A legend from Mousehole Village, Cornwall


The story of Tom Bawcock emanates from the Cornish village of Mousehole (Porthenys). The village is located on the shores of Michael’s Bay (Cammas an Garrek Los) to the south of Penzance (Pennsans). It is set in a stormy winter many years ago. The relentless winds had prevented the fishing boats from leaving harbour. As Christmas approached the local people were becoming desperate and there was a danger of starvation.

A fisherman, Tom Bawcock, seeing the misery and desperation of the people, decided to risk his life and take his boat out into the turbulent seas. He set out on 23rd December and his vessel was tossed and thrown on the crashing waves. Brave Tom Bawcock continued to fish, defying the weather to do its worse. When he arrived back into port he brought with him a mighty catch of fish; enough to feed the village. They were baked into a pie, with the heads of the fish pushed upwards through the pastry.

Morveren - The Cornish Mermaid of Zennor

In Cornwall the cove of Pendour is located close to the village of Zennor. A local legend tells of the story of Morveren the mermaid who lived at Pendour Cove. She was attracted to Mathew Trewella a handsome young local man and was captivated by his beautiful voice. Morveren would visit the church at Zennor just to hear him singing hymns and look upon his fine features.

Eventually Mathew began to notice the beautiful woman who had disguised her mermaid form. They fell in love, but Morveren knew that she could not survive for long away from her home in the sea. She felt compelled to tell Mathew the truth about herself and that as a mermaid she could not settle down to life on land. Sadly Morveren had to say to Mathew that she would have to go. Mathew was distraught and told her that he could not live without her.

Mathew told Morveren that wherever she went he would follow. He went with her to Pendour Cove and as she plunged into the waves he followed her. They live together now in the seas surrounding the beautiful Cornish coast. Local people living close to Pendour Cove will tell you that on calm still nights the sweet voice of Mathew can be heard carrying across the waves as he sings of his undying love for Morveren, The Mermaid of Zennor.


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